Modern Canada came into being in 1867 when the Constitution Act united the initial four provinces of Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick under the Canadian Confederation. In 1868 the Dominion Notes Act authorized the issue of government banknotes and the Uniform Currency Act established that Canadian currency would be denominated in dollars, cents and mills. The first government paper money was issued in 1870 and included a 25-cent note nicknamed the shinplaster, along with 1 and 2 dollar notes. Issues of chartered banks and municipalities continued for decades. The Bank of Canada began operation in 1935. Beginning in 1944 the chartered banks were no longer allowed to issue notes and the Bank of Canada become the sole issuer of Canadian paper money.